Sexual Exploitation by Helping Professionals

Sexual exploitation by a helping professional: sexual contact of any kind between a helping professional (doctor, therapist, teacher, priest, professor, police officer, lawyer, etc.) and a client/patient.

  • It is difficult for a client/patient to give informed consent to sexual contact or boundary violations because the helping professional holds a great deal of power over that client/patient.
  • 90% of sexual boundary violations occur between a male provider and a female client/patient (Plaut, S.M., 1997, p. 79).
  • Such behavior is regarded as unethical and, in every licensed profession, can be grounds for malpractice and possible loss of license.

There are three major types of sexual involvement between a client/patient and a professional:

  1. Sexual activity in the context of a professional treatment, evaluation, or service
  2. Seual activity with the implication that it has therapeutic benefit
  3. A sexually exploitative relationship

Why it is not acceptable behavior:

  • The helping professional starts from a position of great power over the client/patient and is expected to respect and maintain professional boundaries.
  • The professional has a responsibility to protect the interests of the client/patient and not to serve his/her own needs.
  • The client/patient has put his/her trust in that professional and the betrayal of that trust can have devastating consequences.

Within the Therapeutic Relationship:

  • Clients in therapy are the most susceptible because the client is already vulnerable and trusts the therapist t0 help her/him feel better.
  • Therapy relationships are particularly intimate, with clients sharing their innermost thoughts, feelings, and experiences.

Issue of Transference:

  • Transference- Way in which a client transfers negative/positive feelings about others to the therapist. Transference in and of itself is not a bad thing. In fact, it is necessary in all therapeutic relationships.
  • Countertransference- When the therapist projects his or her own feelings back onto the client.
  • Problem- When the therapist is unable to recognize transference and countertransference reactions and, instead, responds in a sexual manner.

Common Reactions:

  • Sexual dysfunction
  • Anxiety disorders
  • Depression
  • Increased risk of suicide
  • Feelings of guilt, shame, anger, confusion, worthlessness
  • Loss of trust

Very Low Report Rate:

  • It is estimated that only 4-8% of survivors of sexual exploitation by helping professionals report the exploitation (Gartrell, N., et al.,1987 per TAASA, p. 168, 2004).
  • Often there is reluctance to report because of
    • Anticipated or real pain associated with pursuing the case
    • Fear that she/he won’t be believed.
  • It often takes several years for the client to recognize that she/he has been harmed.

3 Ways to Take Action:

  1. Licensing board complaints- Standards vary by state and profession. Possible punishments include suspension or revocation of a license or rehabilitation programs. In these cases the client’s confidentiality is protected in any public reports of the proceedings.
  2. Civil lawsuits- Client hires his or her own attorney and sues the therapist directly. Usually this is the only way to receive payment for damages. Procedures are public, and the burden of proof is on the client.
  3. Criminal proceedings- An option in some states. In these cases, the state prosecutes (State v. Therapist). The best possible outcome is a criminal sanction (probation, incarceration).

Additional Resources

AdvocateWeb
Stop Educator Sexual Abuse, Misconduct and Exploitation (SESAME, Inc.)
Survivors Network of Those Abused by Priests (SNAP)

Learn more about the laws in your state through RAINN’s state database.

References:
Plaut, S. Michael. “Boundary violations in professional-client relationships: overview and guidance for prevention.” Sexual and Marital Therapy, 12, 1, 1997.
Plaut, S. Michael. “Understanding and Managing Professional-Client Boundaries.” Handbook of Clinical Sexuality for Mental Health. Stephen B. Levine (ed). New York: Brunner-Routledge, 2003.
Texas Association Against Sexual Assault Sexual Assault Advocate Training Manual, 2004.
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Male Sexual Assault

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Can men be sexually assaulted?

Men and boys are often the victims of the crimes of sexual assault, sexual abuse, and rape. In fact, in the U.S., about 10% of all victims are male.1

The term sexual assault refers to a number of different crimes, ranging from unwanted sexual touching to forced penetration.

Male survivors and others affected by sexual violence can receive free, confidential, live help through RAINN’s National Sexual Assault Hotline, 24/7. Call 1.800.656.HOPE to be connected to a local rape crisis center in your area, or visit the National Sexual Assault Online Hotline to get live help in an instant-messaging format.

Support

Although it can be difficult for male survivors to seek help for fear of how others will react, there are support resources available. Survivors can receive live help through RAINN’s National Sexual Assault Hotline, 24/7.

Sometimes male survivors find it easier to first tell an anonymous hotline staffer rather than a loved one. This allows the survivor to speak to someone who is impartial and trained to listen and help. Many male survivors find that talking to the hotline first makes it easier to tell friends and family later.

What concerns do male survivors have when seeking support for a sexual assault?

Safety

Often, perpetrators use force or threats to prevent a survivor from seeking help. RAINN has tips and resources to help survivors stay safe. In addition, survivors can find local sexual assault service providers here on RAINN’s website. These organizations may be able to offer additional safety options and support in their local communities. The hotlines are also available to educate survivors about the resources available (1-800-656-HOPE and online.rainn.org).

Privacy

Sexual assault is a very personal crime. Many survivors do not wish to share what happened to them publicly and fear that disclosing or reporting the attack may require them to talk publicly about their assault. There are several ways to learn more about recovery and resources anonymously by using the National Sexual Assault Hotlines (1-800-656-HOPE and online.rainn.org), which are free and confidential.

Self-blame

Male survivors may blame themselves for the assault, believing they were not ‘strong enough’ to fight off the perpetrator. Many are confused by the fact that they became physically aroused during the attack, despite the assault or abuse they endured. However, these normal physiological responses do not in any way imply that the victim ‘wanted’ or ‘liked’ the assault.

Is it normal to feel this way?

While not every male survivor of sexual assault reacts in the same way, many reactions are quite common. If left untreated, these effects can have a long-term impact on a survivor’s well-being.

What are some possible effects of sexual assault on a male survivor?

Psychological

  • Sense of self and concept of “reality” are disrupted.
  • Profound anxiety, depression, fearfulness.
  • Concern about sexual orientation.
  • Development of phobias related to the assault setting.
  • Fear of the worst happening and having a sense of a shortened future.
  • Withdrawal from interpersonal contact and a heightened sense of alienation.
  • Stress-induced reactions (problems sleeping, increased startle response, being unable to relax).
  • Psychological outcomes can be severe for men because men are socialized to believe that they are immune to sexual assault and because societal reactions to these assaults can be more isolating.

Heterosexual Male Survivors

  • May experience a fear that the assault will make them gay.
  • May feel that they are “less of a man.”

Homosexual Male Survivors

  • May feel the crime is “punishment” for their sexual orientation.
  • May worry that the assault affected their sexual orientation.
  • May fear they were targeted because they are gay. This fear may lead to withdrawal from the community.
  • May develop self-loathing related to their sexual orientation.

Relationships / Intimacy

  • Relationships may be disrupted by the assault.
  • Relationships may be disrupted by others’ reactions to the assault, such as a lack of belief/support.
  • Relationships may be disrupted by the survivor’s reaction to or coping with the assault.

Emotional

  • Anger about the assault, leading to outward- and inward-focused hostility.
  • Avoidance of emotions or emotional situations, stemming from the overwhelming feelings that come with surviving a sexual assault.

If you, or someone you know, is experiencing any of the thoughts or feelings listed above, please contact The National Sexual Assault Hotline, either online or by phone at 1-800-656-HOPE to speak with a trained staffer.

Other Organizations

Survivors of military sexual assault can receive help via the Department of Defense(DoD) Safe Helpline, a groundbreaking crisis support service for members of the DoD community affected by sexual assault. The service is anonymous, secure, and available 24/7 to the worldwide DoD community — providing victims with the help they need, anytime, anywhere.

Learn more about the laws in your state through RAINN’s state database.

References
  1. This section was adapted from materials provided by the Texas Association Against Sexual Assault.

Partner Rape

Partner Rape is defined as sexual acts committed without a person’s consent and/or against a person’s will when the perpetrator is the individual’s current partner (married or not), previous partner, or co-habitator.

3 types of Partner Rape:
  1. Battering rape– the experience of both physical and sexual violence within a relationship. Some may experience physical abuse during the sexual assault. Others may experience sexual assault after a physical assault as an attempt to “make up.”
  2. Force-only rape– motivated by a perpetrator’s need to demonstrate power and maintain control. Therefore, he/she asserts his/her feelings of entitlement over his/her partner in the form of forced sexual contact.
  3. Obsessive/Sadistic rape– involves torture and perverse sexual acts. Such rape is characteristically violent and often leads to physical injury.

Emotional & Physical Reactions:

Physical:
  • Injuries to the vaginal and anal areas
  • Lacerations
  • Soreness
  • Bruising
  • Torn muscles
  • Fatigue
  • Vomiting
  • Broken bones
  • Black eyes
  • Injuries caused by weapons
  • Miscarriages
  • Stillbirths
  • Contraction of STIs , including HIV
Emotional:

Research indicates that survivors of partner rape are more likely to be raped multiple times when compared to stranger and acquaintance rape survivors. As such, partner rape survivors are more likely to suffer severe and long-lasting physical and psychological injuries.

Learn more about the laws in your state through RAINN’s state database.

Reference:
This section was adapted from materials provided by the Texas Association Against Sexual Assault.

Stranger Rape

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3 Major Categories

  1. Blitz sexual assault– The perpetrator rapidly and brutally assaults the victim with no prior contact. Blitz assaults usually occur at night in a public place.
  2. Contact sexual assault– The suspect contacts the victim and tries to gain her or his trust and confidence before assaulting her or him. Contact perpetrators pick their victims in bars, lure them into their cars, or otherwise try to coerce the victim into a situation of sexual assault.
  3. Home invasion sexual assault– When a stranger breaks into the victim’s home to commit the assault.

Common Reactions

  • Shock
  • Numbness
  • Loss of control
  • Disorientation
  • Helplessness
  • Sense of vulnerability
  • Fear
  • Self-blame for “allowing” the crime to happen
  • Feeling that these reactions are a sign of weakness

Learn more about the laws in your state through RAINN’s state database.

Reference:
This section was adapted from materials provided by the Texas Association Against Sexual Assault.

Who are the Victims of Sexual Assault?

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Breakdown by Gender and Age

Women

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1 out of every 6 American women has been the victim of an attempted or completed rape in her lifetime (14.8% completed rape; 2.8% attempted rape). 1

17.7 million American women have been victims of attempted or completed rape.1

9 of every 10 rape victims were female in 2003. 2

Lifetime rate of rape /attempted rape for women by race: 1
  • All women: 17.6%
  • White women: 17.7%
  • Black women: 18.8%
  • Asian Pacific Islander women: 6.8%
  • American Indian/Alaskan women: 34.1%
  • Mixed race women: 24.4%

Men

About 3% of American men — or 1 in 33 — have experienced an attempted or completed rape in their lifetime. 1

  • In 2003, 1 in every ten rape victims were male. 2
  • 2.78 million men in the U.S. have been victims of sexual assault or rape. 1

Children

15% of sexual assault and rape victims are under age 12. 3

  • 29% are age 12-17.
  • 44% are under age 18. 3
  • 80% are under age 30. 3
  • 12-34 are the highest risk years.
  • Girls ages 16-19 are 4 times more likely than the general population to be victims of rape, attempted rape, or sexual assault.

7% of girls in grades 5-8 and 12% of girls in grades 9-12 said they had been sexually abused. 4

  • 3% of boys grades 5-8 and 5% of boys in grades 9-12 said they had been sexually abused.

In 1995, local child protection service agencies identified 126,000 children who were victims of either substantiated or indicated sexual abuse. 5

  • Of these, 75% were girls.
  • Nearly 30% of child victims were between the age of 4 and 7.

93% of juvenile sexual assault victims know their attacker. 6

  • 34.2% of attackers were family members.
  • 58.7% were acquaintances.
  • Only 7% of the perpetrators were strangers to the victim.

On average during 1992-2001, American Indians age 12 or older experienced annually an estimated 5,900 rapes or sexual assaults. 7

  • American Indians were twice as likely to experience a rape/sexual assault compared to all races.
  • Sexual violence makes up 5% of all violent crime committed against Indians (about the same as for other races).
  • Offender/victim relationship: 41% stranger; 34% acquaintance; 25% intimate or family member.

Effects of Rape

Victims of sexual assault are: 8

3 times more likely to suffer from depression.

6 times more likely to suffer from post-traumatic stress disorder.

13 times more likely to abuse alcohol.

26 times more likely to abuse drugs.

4 times more likely to contemplate suicide.

Pregnancies Resulting from Rape

In 2012, 346,830 women were raped. 9 According to medical reports, the incidence of pregnancy for one-time unprotected sexual intercourse is 5%. By applying the pregnancy rate to 346,830 female survivors, RAINN estimates that there were17,342 pregnancies as a result of rape in 2012.

This calculation does not account for the following factors which could lower the actual number of pregnancies:
  • Rape, as defined by the NCVS, is forced sexual intercourse. Forced sexual intercourse means vaginal, oral, or anal penetration by offender(s). This category includes incidents where the penetration is from a foreign object such as a bottle. Certain types of rape under this definition cannot cause pregnancy.
  • Some victims of rape may be utilizing birth control methods, such as the pill, which will prevent pregnancy.
  • Some rapists may wear condoms in an effort to avoid DNA detection.
  • Vicims of rape may not be able to become pregnant for medical or age-related reasons.
This calculation does not account for the following factors which could raise the actual number of pregnancies:
  • Medical estimates of a 5% pregnancy rate are for one-time, unprotected sexual intercourse. Some victimizations may include multiple incidents of intercourse.
  • Because of methodology, NCVS does not measure the victimization of Americans age 12 or younger. Rapes of these young people could results in pregnancies not accounted for in RAINN’s estimates.
References
  1. National Institute of Justice & Centers for Disease Control & Prevention.Prevalence, Incidence and Consequences of Violence Against Women Survey. 1998.
  2. U.S. Department of Justice. 2003 National Crime Victimization Survey. 2003.
  3. U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics, Sex Offenses and Offenders. 1997.
  4. 1998 Commonwealth Fund Survey of the Health of Adolescent Girls. 1998.
  5. U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, Administration for Children and Families. 1995 Child Maltreatment Survey. 1995.
  6. U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics. 2000 Sexual Assault of Young Children as Reported to Law Enforcement. 2000.
  7. U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics. American Indians and Crime. 1992-2002.
  8. World Health Organization. 2002.
  9. U.S. Department of Justice. 2012 National Crime Victimization Survey. 2012.

AZ College FBI Rape Stats

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Summary of Rape and Sexual Assault Victimization Among College-Age Females, 1995–2013 Created 1/14/15

Bureau of Justice Statistics. Summary created by SVPEP staff.

Link to full report. [Posted 1/2015]

Summary

This summary report was created from the findings of the Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) report entitled, Rape and Sexual Assault Victimization Among College-Age Females, 1995– 2013 that was published in December 2014. The report details and makes comparisons between college student and nonstudent female victims of rape/sexual assault regarding background characteristics, victimization experiences, and perpetrator characteristics. College students were defined as individuals who were female victims age 18 to 24 enrolled who were enrolled part time or full time in a post-secondary institution (i.e., college or university, trade school, or vocational school).

This summary report represents aggregate estimates of rape and sexual assault utilizing the National Crime Victim Survey (NCVS) data from 1995 to 2013. Rape and sexual assault are defined by the NCVS to include completed and attempted rape, completed and attempted sexual assault, and threats of rape or sexual assault. The NCVS collects data regarding nonfatal crimes that are both reported and not reported to police against persons age 12 and over from a nationally representative sample of US households. The full report can be found athttp://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/rsavcaf9513.pdf.

Major Findings from for the Period of 1995-2013:

Similarities between groups

o For both college students and nonstudents, the offender was known to the victim in about 80% of all rape and sexual assault victimizations that occurred during their lifetime.

o The offender had a weapon in about 1 in 10 rape and sexual assault victimizations against both students and nonstudent victims.

Differences between groups

o Rape and sexual assault victimizations of student victims were unreported to police (80%) of the time. Whereas, nonstudent rape and sexual assault victimizations were unreported to police (67%) of the time.

o For student victims, offenders were more likely to be friends or acquaintances (50%) than intimate partners (24%). For nonstudent victims the likelihood of friends or acquaintances being the offender was (37%) and the rate of intimate partner offenders was (34%).

o The reasons for not reporting a rape/sexual assault victimization to police were varied between student and nonstudent victims. A greater percentage of nonstudent (19%) than student (9%) victims stated that they did not report to police because the police would not or could not do anything to help. Student victims (12%) were more likely than nonstudent victims (5%) to state that the rape/sexual assault incident was not important enough to report.

Incest

Incest is sexual contact between persons who are so closely related that their marriage is illegal (e.g., parents and children, uncles/aunts and nieces/nephews, etc.). This usually takes the form of an older family member sexually abusing a child or adolescent.

Laws vary from place to place regarding what constitutes incest, child sexual abuse, sexual assault, and rape.

How common is Incest?

There are very few reliable statistics about how often incest occurs. It’s difficult to know how many people are affected by incest because many incest situations never get reported. There are many reasons that the victim might not report the abuse.

  • The victim has been told that what is happening is normal or happens in every family, and doesn’t realize that it is a form of abuse
  • The victim may not know that help is available or who they can talk to
  • The victim may be afraid of what will happen if they tell someone
    • The abuser may have threatened the victim
    • The victim may care about the abuser and be afraid of what will happen to the abuser if they tell
    • The victim may be afraid of what will happen to them if they tell
  • The victim may also be concerned about how many people will react when they hear about the abuse
    • They may be afraid that no one will believe them or that the person they confide in will tell the abuser
    • The victim may be afraid that people will accuse them of having done something wrong

What makes Incest different than child sexual abuse?

All forms of child sexual abuse can have negative long-term effects for the victim. You can read about some of those effects here.
Incest is especially damaging because it disrupts the child’s primary support system, the family.

  • When a child is abused by someone outside the family, the child’s family is often able to offer support and a sense of safety.
    • When the abuser is someone in the family, the family may not be able to provide support or a sense of safety. Since the children (especially younger children) often have limited resources outside the family, it can be very hard for them to recover from incest
  • Incest can damage a child’s ability to trust, since the people who were supposed to protect and care for them have abused them.
    • Survivors of incest sometimes have difficulty developing trusting relationships
  • It can also be very damaging for a child if a non-abusing parent is aware of the abuse and chooses—for whatever reason—not to take action to stop it.
    • There are many reasons that a non-abusing parent might not stop the abuse.
      • The non-abusing parent may feel that they are dependent on the abuser for shelter or income.
      • If the non-abusing parent was the victim of incest as a child, they may think that this is normal for families.
      • The non-abusing parent may feel that allowing the incest to continue is the only way to keep their partner.
      • The non-abusing parent may feel that their child was “asking for it” by behaving in ways that the parent perceives as provocative or seductive.
        • Unfortunately, many non-abusing parents are aware of the incest and choose not to get their child out of the situation, or worse, to blame their child for what has happened. This makes the long-term effects of incest worse.
What should I do if I am a victim of incest?

First, know that this is not your fault! No one deserves to be abused.
Get some help. You do not have to handle this on your own!

  • Tell a trusted adult.
    • If you can’t talk to a parent, can you talk to…?
      • A teacher?
      • A school counselor?
      • A friend’s parent?
      • Your doctor?
      • Your minister (or pastor, priest, rabbi, imam, etc.)?
  • If you do not have any trusted adults in your life, you can also call Child Protective Services (CPS) for your area. (Even if you are over 18, CPS may still be able to offer assistance.)
    • You can find the number for CPS in RAINN’s mandatory reporting database.Information is listed by state.
    • You can also find the number for Child Protective Services in the Blue Pages of your phone book.
    • Your local police department can also help you contact CPS.
  • Be prepared. Not every adult, even trusted adults, are able to help. You may need to tell more than one person before you find someone who can help.
  • If you need some help thinking through these options, call the National Sexual Assault Hotline any time at (800) 656-HOPE or contact the Online Hotline athttp://www.rainn.org/get-help/national-sexual-assault-online-hotline

Remember that no one deserves to be abused! Help is available.

What should I do if someone I know is a victim of incest?

Listen.

One of the most important things that you can do for a victim is to listen to their story and believe them!

Help keep the victim safe.

  • This may mean different things depending on who you are and what your relationship is to the victim.
    • There may be legal considerations. Depending on where you live and your role in the victim’s life, you may be required to report their situation to the authorities.
      • Teachers, ministers, counselors and other professionals are often “mandated reporters,” or people who are required by law to report child abuse, including incest.
      • Check RAINN’s mandatory reporting database if you are not sure whether you are required to make a report.
  • Even if you are not a mandated reporter, calling Child Protective Services (CPS) may be the best way you can help protect the victim.
    • You can find the number for CPS in RAINN’s mandatory reporting database.Information is listed by state.
    • CPS workers will be able to investigate the situation in greater detail and take steps to protect the victim.
    • You can make reports to CPS anonymously if you are concerned about the victim’s family knowing who made the report.
  • You may also contact the local police department, particularly if you have concerns about the victim’s safety at the time you find out about the incest.

Follow up.

  • Let the victim know that you still care.
  • Listen! Even after the victim is out of the incest situation, they will still need support.

Remember to take care of yourself! Being involved with an incest situation can be scary or upsetting.

If you or someone you know is in an incest situation, do not hesitate to ask for help.

    • You can call Child Protective Services (CPS) for your area.
      • You can find the number for CPS in RAINN’s mandatory reporting database.Information is listed by state.
      • You can also find the number for Child Protective Services in the Blue Pages of your phone book.
      • Your local police department can also help you contact CPS.
        • If you believe that the child is in immediate danger, call 911!

Learn more about the laws in your state through RAINN’s state database.

Hate Crimes

A hate crime is the victimization of an individual based on that individual’s race, religion, national origin, ethnic identification, gender, or sexual orientation.

Acts include:

  • Rape and Sexual Assault
  • Physical assault(s) with weapons
  • Verbal or physical harassment
  • Vandalism/robbery
  • Attacks on homes or places of worship

How does this relate to rape and sexual assault?

While any targeted group can experience rape and sexual assault as a form of hate crime, there are two groups that are often noted for being victims of this particular form of hate crime.

  • Women: Many believe that all violence against women, including rape andsexual assault, is a hate crime because it is not simply a violent act, but is “an act of misogyny, or hatred of women” (Copeland & Wolfe, 1991).
  • People in the LGBT Community: Members of the Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgendered (LGBT) community are often targets of hate crimes, many of which include rape or sexual assault. In one study of almost 2,000 lesbian and gay individuals in Sacramento, CA, about one-fifth of the women and one-fourth of the men had been victimized at some point during the past 5 years (APA, 1998; “Safety and Hate Crimes,” 2006).

Effects

Because a hate crime is an attack on an individual due to his or her identity affiliation (race, gender, sexual orientation, religion, ethnicity, national origin, etc.), the emotional effects of a rape or sexual assault as a hate crime can be compounded. An individual may not only experience the reactions that often follow a rape or sexual assault, he or she may also suffer from additional effects brought on by the attack of their identity. These reactions can include:

  • Deep personal hurt, betrayal
  • Feelings of powerlessness, vulnerability, anger, sadness
  • Fear for personal and family’s safety
  • Changes in lifestyle (where they walk, how they answer the phone, their reactions to strangers)

In addition, research has shown that victims of hate crimes are more likely to experience psychological distress such as post-traumatic stress disorder,depression, and anger than other victims of other crimes. Therefore, if an individual is a victim of a rape or sexual assault that is a hate crime, he or she is more likely to experience psychological effects that are seen both with hate crimes and rape and sexual assault.

Finally, the recovery time can also be prolonged. Research has shown that it can take as much as five years for victims of hate crimes to overcome the emotional and psychological distress caused by such an attack (APA, 1998).

References:
National Center for Victims of Crime
U.S. Department of Justice Community Relations Service, Hate Crime: The Violence of Intolerance.

Learn more about the laws in your state through RAINN’s state database.

Characteristics of Incestuous Fathers

A sample of 118 recently identified incestuous fathers and a matched comparison group of 116 non-abusive fathers were interviewed to determine distinctive characteristics of incestuous fathers.

The men were interviewed about their childhood experiences, family life, and sexual and social histories. The incestuous fathers also provided information on the sexual contacts with their daughters. The comparison fathers were asked about their relationship with their daughters. The study concluded that incestuous fathers are a heterogenous group that consists of five distinct types. The “sexually preoccupied” group manifested clear and conscious sexual interest in their daughters, often from an early age. The group composed of “adolescent regressives” also had a conscious sexual interest in their daughters, but the interest did not begin until the daughter approached or reached puberty. The group that consisted of “instrumental sexual gratifiers” apparently did not experience sexual arousal specifically for their daughters, but rather used the daughter for gratification while fantasizing about some other partner. The “emotionally dependent” group of incestuous fathers consisted of lonely and depressed men for whom the abuse satisfied urgent needs for closeness and comforting. The group of “angry retaliators” showed little sexual arousal toward their daughters, but used the incest to express anger toward their wives for perceived neglect, abandonment, or infidelity. Generally, the incestuous fathers were more likely than the nonabusive fathers to have been rejected by their parents, physically abused, or sexually abused when they themselves were children. They were more likely to have been sexually preoccupied or inept as a teenager, to have a high frequency of masturbation, or to have committed adolescent offenses. They tended to be more anxious, poorly adjusted, and avoidant of leadership as adults. They also tended to be socially isolated and have more difficulties in their marriages.

Original Site: click here 

 

Author(s): L M Williams ; D Finkelhor
Date Published: 1992

Drug Facilitated Sexual Assault

7c13918cfcfec36df48a70eb33c6b8a8Drug facilitated assault: when drugs or alcohol are used to compromise an individual’s ability to consent to sexual activity. In addition, drugs and alcohol are often used in order to minimize the resistance and memory of the victim of a sexual assault.

Alcohol remains the most commonly used chemical in crimes of sexual assault, but there are also substances being used by perpetrators including: Rohypnol, GHB, GBL, etc.

Diminished Capacity

Diminished capacity exists when an individual does not have the capacity to consent. Reasons for this inability to consent include, but are not limited to: sleeping, drugged, passed out, unconscious, mentally incapacitated, etc.

It is important to understand diminished capacity because oftentimes victims of sexual assault in these situations blame themselves because they drank, did drugs, etc. It is essential to emphasize that it is not his or her fault, that the aggressor is the one who took advantage of his or her diminished capacity.

Rohypnol

Rohypnol is not approved for medical use in the United States. It is smuggled into the country and has become an increasingly popular street drug.

Street Names: Roofies, Roach, the Forget Pill, Circles, Mexican Valium, Rib, Roach-2, Roopies, Rophies, La Rochas, Rope, Poor Man’s Quaalude, Whiteys, Trip-and-Fall, Mind Erasers, Lunch Money, and R-2.

What is it?: A small white tablet that looks a lot like aspirin. It quickly disolves in liquid and can take effect within 30 minutes of being ingested. The effects peak within 2 hours and may have lingering effects for 8 hours or more.

Effects
  • Increased blood pressure
  • Memory impairment
  • Muscle relaxation
  • Drowsiness
  • Visual disturbances
  • Dizziness
  • Confusion
  • Unconsciousness
  • Nausea, aspiration on own vomit

GHB

GHB has not been approved by the FDA since 1990. Therefore, it is illegal for distribution and sale in the U.S.

Street Names: Grievous Bodily Harm (GBH), Liquid X, Liquid E, G, Georgia Home Boys, Easy Lay, Cherry Meth, Soap, PM, Salt Water, Vita G, G-Juice, Great Hormones, Somatomax, Bedtime Scoop, Gook, Gamma 10, Energy Drink, and Goop.

What is it?: Pure GHB is commonly sold as a clear, odorless liquid or white crystalline powder. Because it is made in home labs, the effects are often unpredictable. Once ingested, GHB takes effect in approximately 15 minutes and can last 3-4 hours.

Effects
  • Sedation of the body
  • Intense drowsiness
  • Hampered mobility
  • Verbal incoherence
  • Slowed heart rate
  • Nausea, aspiration on own vomit
  • Headache
  • Respiratory failure
  • Unconsciousness
  • Seizure-like activity
  • Coma, death

GBL

A GHB-like product, GBL is often sold under the guise of a dietary supplement or an industrial cleaner.

What is it?: When the body metabolizes GBL, it becomes twice as potent as GHB. It has a bitter taste that can easily be masked by strong-tasting drinks. GBL now comes in flavors such as lime, cinnamon, and cherry. Once ingested it takes approximately 30-45 minutes to take effect.

Effects
  • Severe amnesia
  • Nausea, aspiration on own vomit
  • Lethargy
  • Confusion
  • Hypothermia
  • Coma
  • Respiratory arrest
  • Seizures
  • Agitation
  • Loss of bowel control
  • Death

NOTE: People who take GBL may act normally (i.e., may not appear intoxicated or sedated) but will have no memory of the time period. This effect can make it difficult for friends or acquaintances to identify that the individual has been drugged.

Benzodiazepines

What is it? Commonly prescribed as anti-anxiety and sleeping medications in the United States, these drugs can be put into an alcoholic drink or soft drink in powder or liquid form. These are legal forms of Rohypnol.

What it does: Like the other drugs described above, Benzodiazepines can markedly impair and even abolish functions that normally allow a person to resist, or even want to resist, sexual aggression or assault.

GHB, GBL, Rohypnol, & Benzodiazepines

NOTE:For all of these drugs, alcohol increases the effects.

All four of these drugs have some common effects that make them appealing to perpetrators. These drugs are common weapons of sexual assault due to the combined efforts of the sedative effect and the memory-impairment qualities.

How they Work
  • They are typically odorless, colorless, and tasteless when placed in liquid (except for GBL).
  • 5-30 minutes after ingestion, the victim of the drugging may struggle to talk or to move and may eventually pass out.
  • At this point the drugged individual is vulnerable to assault.
  • A survivor of such an assault may have virtually no memory of the events that occurred.

Another factor that makes these drugs dangerous and difficult to detect is that they leave the body rapidly, leaving little time for detection.

  • Rohypnol– leaves in 36-72 hours
  • GHB– leaves in 10-12 hours
  • GLB– leaves the urinary system within 6 hours and the blood stream within 24 hours.
Some Good News

The producers of Rohypnol have recently changed the chemistry of the pill so that it changes the color of clear drinks to bright blue and makes dark drinks go cloudy. It will, however, take a while for these new pills to hit the streets.

Ketamine

A dissociative general anesthetic that has stimulant, hallucinogenic, and hypnotic properties. It is usually used by veterinarians.

Street Names: K, K-Hole, Special K, Vitamin K, Purple, Psychodelic Heroin, Kit Kat, Jet, Bump, Black Hole.

What is it?: A fast-acting liquid that can be slipped into drinks. It can be used to sedate and incapacitate individuals in order to sexually assault them. Ketamine is especially dangerous when mixed with other drugs or alcohol.

What it does: Ketamine causes individuals to feel detached from their bodies and their surroundings so that, while they may be aware of what is happening to them, they are unable to move or fight back. In addition it may cause amnesia so that they do not remember what happened.

Effects
  • Dizziness
  • Confusion
  • Hallucinations
  • Agitation
  • Disorientation
  • Impaired motor skills
  • High blood pressure
  • Loss of consciousness
  • Depression
  • Potentially fatal respiratory failure

Ecstasy

A toxic hallucinogenic and stimulant that has psychedelic effects. It is illegal to sell or to produce in the United States.

Street Names: E, X, X-TC, M&Ms, Adam, CK, Clarity, Hug Drug, Lover’s Speed.

What is it?: Ecstasy is commonly sold as small pills or capsules and is also available in powder and liquid forms. It can be slipped into an individual’s drink in order to facilitate sexual assault.

What it does: Ecstasy causes individuals to feel extreme relaxation and positivity towards others while it increases sensitivity to touch. When under the influence of ecstasy individuals are less likely to be able to sense danger and it may leave them unable to protect themselves from attack.

Effects
  • Increased blood pressure, pulse, and body temperature
  • Nausea
  • Blurred vision
  • Loss of consciousness
  • Hallucinations
  • Chills
  • Sweating
  • Tremors
  • Strokes
  • Seizures
  • Hypothermia
  • Heat stroke
  • Heart failure
RAINN’s top safety tips for safe drinking:
  1. Don’t leave your drink unattended while talking, dancing, using the ladie’s room, or making a phone call.
  2. At parties, don’t drink from punch bowls or other large, common open containers.
  3. If someone offers to get you a drink from the bar at the club or party, go with them to the bar to order it, watch it being poured, and carry it yourself.
  4. Watch out for your friends, and vice versa. Always leave the party or bar together. If a friend seems out of it, is way too drunk for the amount of liquor she’s had, or is acting out of character, get her to a safety place immediately.
  5. If you think you or a friend has been drugged, call 911, and be explicit with doctors so they’ll give you the right tests (you’ll need a urine test and possibly others). The National Sexual Assault Hotline (800-656-HOPE) can often send an advocate to the hospital to help you through the whole process.

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Learn more about the laws in your state through RAINN’s state database.


References:
Information for this section was adapted from www.911rape.org and materials provided by the Texas Association Against Sexual Assault.